Quick Facts About Kidney Stones
  There are five basic types of kidney stones:
  • Calcium - This type makes up 75% to 80% of all kidney stones and is comprised of calcium oxalates and calcium phosphates.
  • Uric Acid - This stone can occur when there is a high concentration of uric acid in the urine. Alkalinization of the urine can prevent this type.
  • Struvite - Often referred to as the “infection stone,” this type is associated with a urinary tract infection.
  • Cystine - This is a relatively rare stone and usually occurs in  children and adolescents who have cystinuria, a rare genetic kidney disorder.
  • Drug-Induced - Certain medications, most commonly an HIV drug, crystallize to form these kidney stones.
X-ray and metabolic stone evaluation are used for diagnosis.

Treatment options include:

  • Lithotripsy
  • Laser and Ultrasonic Fragmentation
  • Dissolution
  • Basket Extraction

Keys to prevention of kidney stones:
  • Increase fluid intake (8-10 glasses of water a day)
  • Increase fiber in diet
  • Avoid foods high in oxalates (such as iced tea, cocoa, chocolate, wheat bran, soy products, almonds, cashews, peanuts and various fruits and vegetables)
  • Lower salt intake
  • Receive recommended amounts of calcium
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